Package list python-fusepy / debian/2.0.4-1_bpo9+1 fuse.py
debian/2.0.4-1_bpo9+1

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# Copyright (c) 2012 Terence Honles <terence@honles.com> (maintainer)
# Copyright (c) 2008 Giorgos Verigakis <verigak@gmail.com> (author)
#
# Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
# purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
# copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
#
# THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES
# WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
# MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR
# ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
# WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN
# ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF
# OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

from __future__ import print_function, absolute_import, division

from ctypes import *
from ctypes.util import find_library
from errno import *
from os import strerror
from platform import machine, system
from signal import signal, SIGINT, SIG_DFL
from stat import S_IFDIR
from traceback import print_exc

import logging

try:
    from functools import partial
except ImportError:
    # http://docs.python.org/library/functools.html#functools.partial
    def partial(func, *args, **keywords):
        def newfunc(*fargs, **fkeywords):
            newkeywords = keywords.copy()
            newkeywords.update(fkeywords)
            return func(*(args + fargs), **newkeywords)

        newfunc.func = func
        newfunc.args = args
        newfunc.keywords = keywords
        return newfunc

try:
    basestring
except NameError:
    basestring = str

class c_timespec(Structure):
    _fields_ = [('tv_sec', c_long), ('tv_nsec', c_long)]

class c_utimbuf(Structure):
    _fields_ = [('actime', c_timespec), ('modtime', c_timespec)]

class c_stat(Structure):
    pass    # Platform dependent

_system = system()
_machine = machine()

if _system == 'Darwin':
    _libiconv = CDLL(find_library('iconv'), RTLD_GLOBAL) # libfuse dependency
    _libfuse_path = (find_library('fuse4x') or find_library('osxfuse') or
                     find_library('fuse'))
else:
    _libfuse_path = find_library('fuse')

if not _libfuse_path:
    raise EnvironmentError('Unable to find libfuse')
else:
    _libfuse = CDLL(_libfuse_path)

if _system == 'Darwin' and hasattr(_libfuse, 'macfuse_version'):
    _system = 'Darwin-MacFuse'


if _system in ('Darwin', 'Darwin-MacFuse', 'FreeBSD'):
    ENOTSUP = 45
    c_dev_t = c_int32
    c_fsblkcnt_t = c_ulong
    c_fsfilcnt_t = c_ulong
    c_gid_t = c_uint32
    c_mode_t = c_uint16
    c_off_t = c_int64
    c_pid_t = c_int32
    c_uid_t = c_uint32
    setxattr_t = CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_char_p, POINTER(c_byte),
        c_size_t, c_int, c_uint32)
    getxattr_t = CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_char_p, POINTER(c_byte),
        c_size_t, c_uint32)
    if _system == 'Darwin':
        c_stat._fields_ = [
            ('st_dev', c_dev_t),
            ('st_mode', c_mode_t),
            ('st_nlink', c_uint16),
            ('st_ino', c_uint64),
            ('st_uid', c_uid_t),
            ('st_gid', c_gid_t),
            ('st_rdev', c_dev_t),
            ('st_atimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_mtimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_ctimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_birthtimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_size', c_off_t),
            ('st_blocks', c_int64),
            ('st_blksize', c_int32),
            ('st_flags', c_int32),
            ('st_gen', c_int32),
            ('st_lspare', c_int32),
            ('st_qspare', c_int64)]
    else:
        c_stat._fields_ = [
            ('st_dev', c_dev_t),
            ('st_ino', c_uint32),
            ('st_mode', c_mode_t),
            ('st_nlink', c_uint16),
            ('st_uid', c_uid_t),
            ('st_gid', c_gid_t),
            ('st_rdev', c_dev_t),
            ('st_atimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_mtimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_ctimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_size', c_off_t),
            ('st_blocks', c_int64),
            ('st_blksize', c_int32)]
elif _system == 'Linux':
    ENOTSUP = 95
    c_dev_t = c_ulonglong
    c_fsblkcnt_t = c_ulonglong
    c_fsfilcnt_t = c_ulonglong
    c_gid_t = c_uint
    c_mode_t = c_uint
    c_off_t = c_longlong
    c_pid_t = c_int
    c_uid_t = c_uint
    setxattr_t = CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_char_p, POINTER(c_byte),
                           c_size_t, c_int)

    getxattr_t = CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_char_p, POINTER(c_byte),
                           c_size_t)

    if _machine == 'x86_64':
        c_stat._fields_ = [
            ('st_dev', c_dev_t),
            ('st_ino', c_ulong),
            ('st_nlink', c_ulong),
            ('st_mode', c_mode_t),
            ('st_uid', c_uid_t),
            ('st_gid', c_gid_t),
            ('__pad0', c_int),
            ('st_rdev', c_dev_t),
            ('st_size', c_off_t),
            ('st_blksize', c_long),
            ('st_blocks', c_long),
            ('st_atimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_mtimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_ctimespec', c_timespec)]
    elif _machine == 'mips':
        c_stat._fields_ = [
            ('st_dev', c_dev_t),
            ('__pad1_1', c_ulong),
            ('__pad1_2', c_ulong),
            ('__pad1_3', c_ulong),
            ('st_ino', c_ulong),
            ('st_mode', c_mode_t),
            ('st_nlink', c_ulong),
            ('st_uid', c_uid_t),
            ('st_gid', c_gid_t),
            ('st_rdev', c_dev_t),
            ('__pad2_1', c_ulong),
            ('__pad2_2', c_ulong),
            ('st_size', c_off_t),
            ('__pad3', c_ulong),
            ('st_atimespec', c_timespec),
            ('__pad4', c_ulong),
            ('st_mtimespec', c_timespec),
            ('__pad5', c_ulong),
            ('st_ctimespec', c_timespec),
            ('__pad6', c_ulong),
            ('st_blksize', c_long),
            ('st_blocks', c_long),
            ('__pad7_1', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_2', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_3', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_4', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_5', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_6', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_7', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_8', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_9', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_10', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_11', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_12', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_13', c_ulong),
            ('__pad7_14', c_ulong)]
    elif _machine == 'ppc':
        c_stat._fields_ = [
            ('st_dev', c_dev_t),
            ('st_ino', c_ulonglong),
            ('st_mode', c_mode_t),
            ('st_nlink', c_uint),
            ('st_uid', c_uid_t),
            ('st_gid', c_gid_t),
            ('st_rdev', c_dev_t),
            ('__pad2', c_ushort),
            ('st_size', c_off_t),
            ('st_blksize', c_long),
            ('st_blocks', c_longlong),
            ('st_atimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_mtimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_ctimespec', c_timespec)]
    elif _machine == 'aarch64':
        c_stat._fields_ = [
            ('st_dev', c_dev_t),
            ('st_ino', c_ulong),
            ('st_mode', c_mode_t),
            ('st_nlink', c_uint),
            ('st_uid', c_uid_t),
            ('st_gid', c_gid_t),
            ('st_rdev', c_dev_t),
            ('__pad1', c_ulong),
            ('st_size', c_off_t),
            ('st_blksize', c_int),
            ('__pad2', c_int),
            ('st_blocks', c_long),
            ('st_atimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_mtimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_ctimespec', c_timespec)]
    else:
        # i686, use as fallback for everything else
        c_stat._fields_ = [
            ('st_dev', c_dev_t),
            ('__pad1', c_ushort),
            ('__st_ino', c_ulong),
            ('st_mode', c_mode_t),
            ('st_nlink', c_uint),
            ('st_uid', c_uid_t),
            ('st_gid', c_gid_t),
            ('st_rdev', c_dev_t),
            ('__pad2', c_ushort),
            ('st_size', c_off_t),
            ('st_blksize', c_long),
            ('st_blocks', c_longlong),
            ('st_atimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_mtimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_ctimespec', c_timespec),
            ('st_ino', c_ulonglong)]
else:
    raise NotImplementedError('%s is not supported.' % _system)


class c_statvfs(Structure):
    _fields_ = [
        ('f_bsize', c_ulong),
        ('f_frsize', c_ulong),
        ('f_blocks', c_fsblkcnt_t),
        ('f_bfree', c_fsblkcnt_t),
        ('f_bavail', c_fsblkcnt_t),
        ('f_files', c_fsfilcnt_t),
        ('f_ffree', c_fsfilcnt_t),
        ('f_favail', c_fsfilcnt_t),
        ('f_fsid', c_ulong),
        #('unused', c_int),
        ('f_flag', c_ulong),
        ('f_namemax', c_ulong)]

if _system == 'FreeBSD':
    c_fsblkcnt_t = c_uint64
    c_fsfilcnt_t = c_uint64
    setxattr_t = CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_char_p, POINTER(c_byte),
                           c_size_t, c_int)

    getxattr_t = CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_char_p, POINTER(c_byte),
                           c_size_t)

    class c_statvfs(Structure):
        _fields_ = [
            ('f_bavail', c_fsblkcnt_t),
            ('f_bfree', c_fsblkcnt_t),
            ('f_blocks', c_fsblkcnt_t),
            ('f_favail', c_fsfilcnt_t),
            ('f_ffree', c_fsfilcnt_t),
            ('f_files', c_fsfilcnt_t),
            ('f_bsize', c_ulong),
            ('f_flag', c_ulong),
            ('f_frsize', c_ulong)]

class fuse_file_info(Structure):
    _fields_ = [
        ('flags', c_int),
        ('fh_old', c_ulong),
        ('writepage', c_int),
        ('direct_io', c_uint, 1),
        ('keep_cache', c_uint, 1),
        ('flush', c_uint, 1),
        ('padding', c_uint, 29),
        ('fh', c_uint64),
        ('lock_owner', c_uint64)]

class fuse_context(Structure):
    _fields_ = [
        ('fuse', c_voidp),
        ('uid', c_uid_t),
        ('gid', c_gid_t),
        ('pid', c_pid_t),
        ('private_data', c_voidp)]

_libfuse.fuse_get_context.restype = POINTER(fuse_context)


class fuse_operations(Structure):
    _fields_ = [
        ('getattr', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(c_stat))),
        ('readlink', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(c_byte), c_size_t)),
        ('getdir', c_voidp),    # Deprecated, use readdir
        ('mknod', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_mode_t, c_dev_t)),
        ('mkdir', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_mode_t)),
        ('unlink', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p)),
        ('rmdir', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p)),
        ('symlink', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_char_p)),
        ('rename', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_char_p)),
        ('link', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_char_p)),
        ('chmod', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_mode_t)),
        ('chown', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_uid_t, c_gid_t)),
        ('truncate', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_off_t)),
        ('utime', c_voidp),     # Deprecated, use utimens
        ('open', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(fuse_file_info))),

        ('read', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(c_byte), c_size_t,
                           c_off_t, POINTER(fuse_file_info))),

        ('write', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(c_byte), c_size_t,
                            c_off_t, POINTER(fuse_file_info))),

        ('statfs', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(c_statvfs))),
        ('flush', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(fuse_file_info))),
        ('release', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(fuse_file_info))),
        ('fsync', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_int, POINTER(fuse_file_info))),
        ('setxattr', setxattr_t),
        ('getxattr', getxattr_t),
        ('listxattr', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(c_byte), c_size_t)),
        ('removexattr', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_char_p)),
        ('opendir', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(fuse_file_info))),

        ('readdir', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_voidp,
                              CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_voidp, c_char_p,
                                        POINTER(c_stat), c_off_t),
                              c_off_t, POINTER(fuse_file_info))),

        ('releasedir', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(fuse_file_info))),

        ('fsyncdir', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_int,
                               POINTER(fuse_file_info))),

        ('init', CFUNCTYPE(c_voidp, c_voidp)),
        ('destroy', CFUNCTYPE(c_voidp, c_voidp)),
        ('access', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_int)),

        ('create', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_mode_t,
                             POINTER(fuse_file_info))),

        ('ftruncate', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_off_t,
                                POINTER(fuse_file_info))),

        ('fgetattr', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(c_stat),
                               POINTER(fuse_file_info))),

        ('lock', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(fuse_file_info),
                           c_int, c_voidp)),

        ('utimens', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, POINTER(c_utimbuf))),
        ('bmap', CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_char_p, c_size_t, POINTER(c_ulonglong))),
        ('flag_nullpath_ok', c_uint, 1),
        ('flag_nopath', c_uint, 1),
        ('flag_utime_omit_ok', c_uint, 1),
        ('flag_reserved', c_uint, 29),
    ]


def time_of_timespec(ts):
    return ts.tv_sec + ts.tv_nsec / 10 ** 9

def set_st_attrs(st, attrs):
    for key, val in attrs.items():
        if key in ('st_atime', 'st_mtime', 'st_ctime', 'st_birthtime'):
            timespec = getattr(st, key + 'spec', None)
            if timespec is None:
                continue
            timespec.tv_sec = int(val)
            timespec.tv_nsec = int((val - timespec.tv_sec) * 10 ** 9)
        elif hasattr(st, key):
            setattr(st, key, val)


def fuse_get_context():
    'Returns a (uid, gid, pid) tuple'

    ctxp = _libfuse.fuse_get_context()
    ctx = ctxp.contents
    return ctx.uid, ctx.gid, ctx.pid


class FuseOSError(OSError):
    def __init__(self, errno):
        super(FuseOSError, self).__init__(errno, strerror(errno))


class FUSE(object):
    '''
    This class is the lower level interface and should not be subclassed under
    normal use. Its methods are called by fuse.

    Assumes API version 2.6 or later.
    '''

    OPTIONS = (
        ('foreground', '-f'),
        ('debug', '-d'),
        ('nothreads', '-s'),
    )

    def __init__(self, operations, mountpoint, raw_fi=False, encoding='utf-8',
                 **kwargs):

        '''
        Setting raw_fi to True will cause FUSE to pass the fuse_file_info
        class as is to Operations, instead of just the fh field.

        This gives you access to direct_io, keep_cache, etc.
        '''

        self.operations = operations
        self.raw_fi = raw_fi
        self.encoding = encoding

        args = ['fuse']

        args.extend(flag for arg, flag in self.OPTIONS
                    if kwargs.pop(arg, False))

        kwargs.setdefault('fsname', operations.__class__.__name__)
        args.append('-o')
        args.append(','.join(self._normalize_fuse_options(**kwargs)))
        args.append(mountpoint)

        args = [arg.encode(encoding) for arg in args]
        argv = (c_char_p * len(args))(*args)

        fuse_ops = fuse_operations()
        for ent in fuse_operations._fields_:
            name, prototype = ent[:2]

            val = getattr(operations, name, None)
            if val is None:
                continue

            # Function pointer members are tested for using the
            # getattr(operations, name) above but are dynamically
            # invoked using self.operations(name)
            if hasattr(prototype, 'argtypes'):
                val = prototype(partial(self._wrapper, getattr(self, name)))

            setattr(fuse_ops, name, val)

        try:
            old_handler = signal(SIGINT, SIG_DFL)
        except ValueError:
            old_handler = SIG_DFL

        err = _libfuse.fuse_main_real(len(args), argv, pointer(fuse_ops),
                                      sizeof(fuse_ops), None)

        try:
            signal(SIGINT, old_handler)
        except ValueError:
            pass

        del self.operations     # Invoke the destructor
        if err:
            raise RuntimeError(err)

    @staticmethod
    def _normalize_fuse_options(**kargs):
        for key, value in kargs.items():
            if isinstance(value, bool):
                if value is True: yield key
            else:
                yield '%s=%s' % (key, value)

    @staticmethod
    def _wrapper(func, *args, **kwargs):
        'Decorator for the methods that follow'

        try:
            return func(*args, **kwargs) or 0
        except OSError as e:
            return -(e.errno or EFAULT)
        except:
            print_exc()
            return -EFAULT

    def _decode_optional_path(self, path):
        # NB: this method is intended for fuse operations that
        #     allow the path argument to be NULL,
        #     *not* as a generic path decoding method
        if path is None:
            return None
        return path.decode(self.encoding)

    def getattr(self, path, buf):
        return self.fgetattr(path, buf, None)

    def readlink(self, path, buf, bufsize):
        ret = self.operations('readlink', path.decode(self.encoding)) \
                  .encode(self.encoding)

        # copies a string into the given buffer
        # (null terminated and truncated if necessary)
        data = create_string_buffer(ret[:bufsize - 1])
        memmove(buf, data, len(data))
        return 0

    def mknod(self, path, mode, dev):
        return self.operations('mknod', path.decode(self.encoding), mode, dev)

    def mkdir(self, path, mode):
        return self.operations('mkdir', path.decode(self.encoding), mode)

    def unlink(self, path):
        return self.operations('unlink', path.decode(self.encoding))

    def rmdir(self, path):
        return self.operations('rmdir', path.decode(self.encoding))

    def symlink(self, source, target):
        'creates a symlink `target -> source` (e.g. ln -s source target)'

        return self.operations('symlink', target.decode(self.encoding),
                                          source.decode(self.encoding))

    def rename(self, old, new):
        return self.operations('rename', old.decode(self.encoding),
                                         new.decode(self.encoding))

    def link(self, source, target):
        'creates a hard link `target -> source` (e.g. ln source target)'

        return self.operations('link', target.decode(self.encoding),
                                       source.decode(self.encoding))

    def chmod(self, path, mode):
        return self.operations('chmod', path.decode(self.encoding), mode)

    def chown(self, path, uid, gid):
        # Check if any of the arguments is a -1 that has overflowed
        if c_uid_t(uid + 1).value == 0:
            uid = -1
        if c_gid_t(gid + 1).value == 0:
            gid = -1

        return self.operations('chown', path.decode(self.encoding), uid, gid)

    def truncate(self, path, length):
        return self.operations('truncate', path.decode(self.encoding), length)

    def open(self, path, fip):
        fi = fip.contents
        if self.raw_fi:
            return self.operations('open', path.decode(self.encoding), fi)
        else:
            fi.fh = self.operations('open', path.decode(self.encoding),
                                            fi.flags)

            return 0

    def read(self, path, buf, size, offset, fip):
        if self.raw_fi:
          fh = fip.contents
        else:
          fh = fip.contents.fh

        ret = self.operations('read', self._decode_optional_path(path), size,
                                      offset, fh)

        if not ret: return 0

        retsize = len(ret)
        assert retsize <= size, \
            'actual amount read %d greater than expected %d' % (retsize, size)

        data = create_string_buffer(ret, retsize)
        memmove(buf, data, retsize)
        return retsize

    def write(self, path, buf, size, offset, fip):
        data = string_at(buf, size)

        if self.raw_fi:
            fh = fip.contents
        else:
            fh = fip.contents.fh

        return self.operations('write', self._decode_optional_path(path), data,
                                        offset, fh)

    def statfs(self, path, buf):
        stv = buf.contents
        attrs = self.operations('statfs', path.decode(self.encoding))
        for key, val in attrs.items():
            if hasattr(stv, key):
                setattr(stv, key, val)

        return 0

    def flush(self, path, fip):
        if self.raw_fi:
            fh = fip.contents
        else:
            fh = fip.contents.fh

        return self.operations('flush', self._decode_optional_path(path), fh)

    def release(self, path, fip):
        if self.raw_fi:
          fh = fip.contents
        else:
          fh = fip.contents.fh

        return self.operations('release', self._decode_optional_path(path), fh)

    def fsync(self, path, datasync, fip):
        if self.raw_fi:
            fh = fip.contents
        else:
            fh = fip.contents.fh

        return self.operations('fsync', self._decode_optional_path(path), datasync,
                                        fh)

    def setxattr(self, path, name, value, size, options, *args):
        return self.operations('setxattr', path.decode(self.encoding),
                               name.decode(self.encoding),
                               string_at(value, size), options, *args)

    def getxattr(self, path, name, value, size, *args):
        ret = self.operations('getxattr', path.decode(self.encoding),
                                          name.decode(self.encoding), *args)

        retsize = len(ret)
        # allow size queries
        if not value: return retsize

        # do not truncate
        if retsize > size: return -ERANGE

        buf = create_string_buffer(ret, retsize)    # Does not add trailing 0
        memmove(value, buf, retsize)

        return retsize

    def listxattr(self, path, namebuf, size):
        attrs = self.operations('listxattr', path.decode(self.encoding)) or ''
        ret = '\x00'.join(attrs).encode(self.encoding)
        if len(ret) > 0:
            ret += '\x00'.encode(self.encoding)

        retsize = len(ret)
        # allow size queries
        if not namebuf: return retsize

        # do not truncate
        if retsize > size: return -ERANGE

        buf = create_string_buffer(ret, retsize)
        memmove(namebuf, buf, retsize)

        return retsize

    def removexattr(self, path, name):
        return self.operations('removexattr', path.decode(self.encoding),
                                              name.decode(self.encoding))

    def opendir(self, path, fip):
        # Ignore raw_fi
        fip.contents.fh = self.operations('opendir',
                                          path.decode(self.encoding))

        return 0

    def readdir(self, path, buf, filler, offset, fip):
        # Ignore raw_fi
        for item in self.operations('readdir', self._decode_optional_path(path),
                                               fip.contents.fh):

            if isinstance(item, basestring):
                name, st, offset = item, None, 0
            else:
                name, attrs, offset = item
                if attrs:
                    st = c_stat()
                    set_st_attrs(st, attrs)
                else:
                    st = None

            if filler(buf, name.encode(self.encoding), st, offset) != 0:
                break

        return 0

    def releasedir(self, path, fip):
        # Ignore raw_fi
        return self.operations('releasedir', self._decode_optional_path(path),
                                             fip.contents.fh)

    def fsyncdir(self, path, datasync, fip):
        # Ignore raw_fi
        return self.operations('fsyncdir', self._decode_optional_path(path),
                                           datasync, fip.contents.fh)

    def init(self, conn):
        return self.operations('init', '/')

    def destroy(self, private_data):
        return self.operations('destroy', '/')

    def access(self, path, amode):
        return self.operations('access', path.decode(self.encoding), amode)

    def create(self, path, mode, fip):
        fi = fip.contents
        path = path.decode(self.encoding)

        if self.raw_fi:
            return self.operations('create', path, mode, fi)
        else:
            fi.fh = self.operations('create', path, mode)
            return 0

    def ftruncate(self, path, length, fip):
        if self.raw_fi:
            fh = fip.contents
        else:
            fh = fip.contents.fh

        return self.operations('truncate', self._decode_optional_path(path),
                                           length, fh)

    def fgetattr(self, path, buf, fip):
        memset(buf, 0, sizeof(c_stat))

        st = buf.contents
        if not fip:
            fh = fip
        elif self.raw_fi:
            fh = fip.contents
        else:
            fh = fip.contents.fh

        attrs = self.operations('getattr', self._decode_optional_path(path), fh)
        set_st_attrs(st, attrs)
        return 0

    def lock(self, path, fip, cmd, lock):
        if self.raw_fi:
            fh = fip.contents
        else:
            fh = fip.contents.fh

        return self.operations('lock', self._decode_optional_path(path), fh, cmd,
                                       lock)

    def utimens(self, path, buf):
        if buf:
            atime = time_of_timespec(buf.contents.actime)
            mtime = time_of_timespec(buf.contents.modtime)
            times = (atime, mtime)
        else:
            times = None

        return self.operations('utimens', path.decode(self.encoding), times)

    def bmap(self, path, blocksize, idx):
        return self.operations('bmap', path.decode(self.encoding), blocksize,
                                       idx)


class Operations(object):
    '''
    This class should be subclassed and passed as an argument to FUSE on
    initialization. All operations should raise a FuseOSError exception on
    error.

    When in doubt of what an operation should do, check the FUSE header file
    or the corresponding system call man page.
    '''

    def __call__(self, op, *args):
        if not hasattr(self, op):
            raise FuseOSError(EFAULT)
        return getattr(self, op)(*args)

    def access(self, path, amode):
        return 0

    bmap = None

    def chmod(self, path, mode):
        raise FuseOSError(EROFS)

    def chown(self, path, uid, gid):
        raise FuseOSError(EROFS)

    def create(self, path, mode, fi=None):
        '''
        When raw_fi is False (default case), fi is None and create should
        return a numerical file handle.

        When raw_fi is True the file handle should be set directly by create
        and return 0.
        '''

        raise FuseOSError(EROFS)

    def destroy(self, path):
        'Called on filesystem destruction. Path is always /'

        pass

    def flush(self, path, fh):
        return 0

    def fsync(self, path, datasync, fh):
        return 0

    def fsyncdir(self, path, datasync, fh):
        return 0

    def getattr(self, path, fh=None):
        '''
        Returns a dictionary with keys identical to the stat C structure of
        stat(2).

        st_atime, st_mtime and st_ctime should be floats.

        NOTE: There is an incombatibility between Linux and Mac OS X
        concerning st_nlink of directories. Mac OS X counts all files inside
        the directory, while Linux counts only the subdirectories.
        '''

        if path != '/':
            raise FuseOSError(ENOENT)
        return dict(st_mode=(S_IFDIR | 0o755), st_nlink=2)

    def getxattr(self, path, name, position=0):
        raise FuseOSError(ENOTSUP)

    def init(self, path):
        '''
        Called on filesystem initialization. (Path is always /)

        Use it instead of __init__ if you start threads on initialization.
        '''

        pass

    def link(self, target, source):
        'creates a hard link `target -> source` (e.g. ln source target)'

        raise FuseOSError(EROFS)

    def listxattr(self, path):
        return []

    lock = None

    def mkdir(self, path, mode):
        raise FuseOSError(EROFS)

    def mknod(self, path, mode, dev):
        raise FuseOSError(EROFS)

    def open(self, path, flags):
        '''
        When raw_fi is False (default case), open should return a numerical
        file handle.

        When raw_fi is True the signature of open becomes:
            open(self, path, fi)

        and the file handle should be set directly.
        '''

        return 0

    def opendir(self, path):
        'Returns a numerical file handle.'

        return 0

    def read(self, path, size, offset, fh):
        'Returns a string containing the data requested.'

        raise FuseOSError(EIO)

    def readdir(self, path, fh):
        '''
        Can return either a list of names, or a list of (name, attrs, offset)
        tuples. attrs is a dict as in getattr.
        '''

        return ['.', '..']

    def readlink(self, path):
        raise FuseOSError(ENOENT)

    def release(self, path, fh):
        return 0

    def releasedir(self, path, fh):
        return 0

    def removexattr(self, path, name):
        raise FuseOSError(ENOTSUP)

    def rename(self, old, new):
        raise FuseOSError(EROFS)

    def rmdir(self, path):
        raise FuseOSError(EROFS)

    def setxattr(self, path, name, value, options, position=0):
        raise FuseOSError(ENOTSUP)

    def statfs(self, path):
        '''
        Returns a dictionary with keys identical to the statvfs C structure of
        statvfs(3).

        On Mac OS X f_bsize and f_frsize must be a power of 2
        (minimum 512).
        '''

        return {}

    def symlink(self, target, source):
        'creates a symlink `target -> source` (e.g. ln -s source target)'

        raise FuseOSError(EROFS)

    def truncate(self, path, length, fh=None):
        raise FuseOSError(EROFS)

    def unlink(self, path):
        raise FuseOSError(EROFS)

    def utimens(self, path, times=None):
        'Times is a (atime, mtime) tuple. If None use current time.'

        return 0

    def write(self, path, data, offset, fh):
        raise FuseOSError(EROFS)


class LoggingMixIn:
    log = logging.getLogger('fuse.log-mixin')

    def __call__(self, op, path, *args):
        self.log.debug('-> %s %s %s', op, path, repr(args))
        ret = '[Unhandled Exception]'
        try:
            ret = getattr(self, op)(path, *args)
            return ret
        except OSError as e:
            ret = str(e)
            raise
        finally:
            self.log.debug('<- %s %s', op, repr(ret))